Vul. Antonovycha, 80 – residential building
Once belonging to a family of athletes, the Kuchars, the villa is an example of an wealthy family estate in the city. It was built under a project designed by Zygmunt Pszorn in 1910. The house embodies the idea of rational architecture, which developed more in the interwar period. Its functional comfort is supplemented by landscape design which is in accord with the garden city concept.
The villa on vul. Antonovycha 80 is part of the historical area of Lviv. The modern vul. Antonovycha, its lower part, first appears on maps of Lviv in the late 18th century. It was then called Sadowa (ger. Gartengasse), renamed Sadownicka in 1871 and Zadwórzańska in 1927, in honor of the Zadwirya (pol. Zadwórze) railway station near which a battle took place between a detachment of Polish volunteers and the First Cavalry Army of Budyonny in August 1920. During the German occupation, the street was named Ludendorffstrasse, in honor of German General Erich Ludendorff; after the war, in 1944, its pre-war name in its Ukrainian version, Zadvirnianska, was restituted; in 1946 it was renamed Stalingradska in honor of the city of Stalingrad. In 1961, due to the renaming of Stalingrad to Volgograd, the street was renamed Volgogradska. In early 1983, on the eve of the celebrations of the 40th anniversary of the end of the Battle of Stalingrad, vul. Volgogradska was renamed Stalingradskoi Bytvy. In 1992, the street was named in honor of Ukrainian historian and ethnographer Volodymyr Antonovych.
In 1900, ul. Sadownicka, which at the time ended at the intersection with ul. Szymonowiczów (today, vul. Melnyka), was extended westwards to ul. Kulparkowska (today, vul. Kulparkivska). This part of the territory was parcelled and built up mostly with manor houses.
In 1901, Maria Drozdowicz, the owner of several plots on ul. Sadownicka (numbers 2998, 2999, 3000), which had been separated from the plot with conscription number 151¼, built a small single-story house under a gable roof on one of them (orientational number 80). The project was designed by architect Michał Kustanowicz (DALO 2/2/4879:13). The house consisted of a small entryway and two rooms with an area of 15 and 11.5 m2; on the north side, a lower structure with two closets, having an area of 5 m2 each, was adjoined. This house was intended, apparently, for rent, judging by the project in which the two rooms are called "stations."
In 1909, the house was bought by a wealthy family of Ludwik and Ludwika Kuchar. They moved to Lviv in 1893 and settled first on ul. Żółkiewska (today, vul. Bohdana Khmelnytskoho) 107. The couple had six sons, who, like their father, were all-round athletes associated with the LKS Pogoń club in Lviv, including the football section; later all of them were also officers in the Polish army. Ludwik Kuchar was an entrepreneur, a sports activist and a philanthropist. He was a sponsor of the football club LKS Pogoń Lwów. His main specialty was chemistry: he worked as an administrative director of the alcoholic beverages factory "Piotr Mikolasch i Spółka." In addition, he was the founder and owner of a network of cinemas in Lviv ("Pasaż") and Krakow ("Wanda"). The eldest son, Tadeusz Kuchar (1891-1966), was an engineer, a football coach and the founder of the Polish Olympic Committee, the first president of the Athletics Federation of Poland (1919-1921). He was the director of the main committee of physical culture. Wacław (1897-1981) was the most versatile athlete in the history of Polish and Lviv interwar sports and a football coach. He played for the team of LKS Pogoń Lwów, the national team of Poland, was the captain of the team. He was a champion of Poland in football, hockey and skating, a nine-time winner of the national championships in six different disciplines. After the annexation of Western Ukraine by the USSR, he coached Dynamo Lviv. Władysław (1895-1983) was a great tennis player and athlete; Mieczysław (1902-1939) was a football player, goalkeeper of LKS Pogoń; Zbigniew (1905-1945) was a hockey player of LKS Pogoń; Karol (1893-1960) and Kazimierza (1899-1981, Chodkiewicz after marriage).
Since Ludwik Kuchar was a busy man, the house was run by his wife; in particular, it was she who was entrusted with building their own house. On October 29, 1909, Ludwika Kuchar received permission to have a villa built next to a single-story building constructed in 1901. The villa was designed by architect Zygmunt Pszorn and approved on November 13, 1909. Under this project, the villa was to be a partly single-story and partly two-story structure. In particular, it was noted in the building regulations that "the walls of the house should be made of brick, 60 cm thick and plastered, bathrooms and toilets onthe floors should be covered with a vault on iron rails. From the side of the street, in the regulation line, the site should be fenced off with a decorative fence, according to the attached project."
The construction continued throughout 1910. General communications (water, electricity, gas) were laid at the site, for which funds were paid to the city treasury. On July 14, 1910, Ludwika Kuchar was given permission to connect a section of the sewer canal from the constructed building to the public one on the street. However, due to the fact that the house was being built with a deviation from the project (the single-story part was raised), Zygmunt Pszorn designed an additional project, which was approved on September 12, 1910. By the end of the year, the villa was completed and on January 10, 1911, the Kuchars received permission to live there.
The villa is a large spacious house with two verandas, richly decorated with smithery. The mansion was adapted to a sports lifestyle. Ludwik Kuchar was privately interested in fencing, gymnastics and cycling, so a fencing room was provided in the house. Gymnastic equipment for children was set up in the garden.
According to the project, the entrances to the house (both main one and back one) were arranged through open verandas. However, both verandas were glazed for convenience, using milk textured glass as a decoration in the upper part. It is unknown whether the verandas were glazed immediately or later. The Kuchars lived in the villa until the Second World War.
After the forced eviction, most of the Kuchars found themselves in Warsaw. In 1944, the Soviet authorities accommodated an antituberculous nursery in their villa, which operated there until 1955. On June 1, 1955, a children's tuberculosis sanatorium was opened on the basis of the nursery. The first head physician of the sanatorium was the nursery director, doctor L. L. Moiseenkova, who reorganized the institution and organized the treatment and rehabilitation of children with tuberculosis. There was a sanitary checkpoint, an extended treatment room, a food block, etc. The adaptation did not affect the original layout of the villa, though tiled stoves were reconstructed, and metal stairs leading to the balcony were arranged to ensure fire safety.
In 1999 the sanatorium premises were transferred to
communal ownership. The children's tuberculosis sanatorium functioned there
The house’s style is that of so-called rational secession; it is located separately and has an area of 562.6 m2. The brick two-story building is plastered, it has a basement and a high tin roof with a light above the staircase. It is based on a plan close to a square, with two cut corners having one window axis each. The layout of the façades is concise, subject to the location of rectangular window openings. The villa is decorated with smithery: stair railings, jardinieres, bars on the ground floor windows, balcony railing. The south-eastern façade is notable due to grouped window openings and a balcony with wrought-iron bars on the extreme left axis. The south-western and north-western façades are accentuated by glazed verandas to which stairs with wrought-iron railings and jardinieres lead. The upper part of the verandas is decorated with stained glass filling with milk textured glass (now painted over).
The layout is based on a wooden staircase with a wrought-iron railing, located in the middle of the blank northeast wall and lit by a light rising above the roof. The rooms are spacious and bright. In theground floor kitchen, a stove has been preserved, a cabinet for documents; in the rooms, there are low Soviet-style tile stoves, two stoves are reconstructed with the use of secession tiles: one of bowl tiles and the other of tiles with plant decoration. Authentic window and door woodwork with brass fittings has been preserved, as well as iron doors with forged decoration in the attic. The bridgings betseen the floors are flat, the basement is covered with segmental brick vaults on metal channels.
The rectangular brick and plastered one-story house nearby (built in 1901), with an area of 46.8 m2, has a gabled tin roof and no cellars. Its architectural design resembles urban provincial mansions. The main façade has four rectangular windows, with small attic windowson their axes.
The villa's plot is fenced off from vul. Antonovycha, in the building frontage line, with stylish wrought iron bars with a gate and a wicket, with jardinieres on the sides. Various trees and bushes grow on the site, both deciduous and coniferous.
Ruins of Mikolash Passage – former Vtikha, Ton, Pasaż, Lux cinemas
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Maria Drozdowicz — owner of the few parcels who built a one-story house for rent here
Michał Kustanwicz — architect who designed the one-story house
Ludwik Kuchar — entrepreneur, sport activist and patron, sponsor of the Pogoń football club; as a chemist, administrative director of the Piotr Mikolasch i Spółka alcoholic beverages factory, founder and owner of the Pasaż cinema network in Lviv and Wanda in Krakow, owner of the villa
Ludwika Kuchar — the wife of Ludwik Kuchar, and villa's co-owner, who managed its construction
Tadeusz Kuchar (1891-1966) — engineer and football coach, founder of the Polish Olympic Committee, first president of the Athletic Federation of Poland (1919-1921), director of the main committee of physical culture.
Wacław Kuchar (1897-1981) — most versatile athlete in the history of Polish and Lviv interwar sports and a football coach. He played for the team of LKS Pogoń Lwów, the national team of Poland, was the captain of the team. He was a champion of Poland in football, hockey and skating, a nine-time winner of the national championships in six different disciplines. After the annexation of Western Ukraine by the USSR, he coached Dynamo Lviv.
Władysław Kuchar (1895-1983) — tennis player and athlete.
Mieczysław Kuchar (1902-1939) — football player, goalkeeper of the LKS Pogoń.
Zbigniew Kuchar (1905-1945) — hockey player of the LKS Pogoń.
Karol Kuchar (1893-1960) — sportsman.
Kazimiera Chodkiewicz née Kuchar (1899-1981) — daughter of Ludwika and Ludwik Kuchar.
Zygmunt Pszorn (1864-1912) — architect who designed the Kuchars' villa.
L.L. Moiseenkova — nursery director, first head doctor of the children tuberculosis sanatorium.
- State Archive of Lviv Region (DALO) 2/2/4879
- Карта Львова 1936 року.
- Борис Мельник, Довідник перейменувань вулиць і площ Львова, (Львів, 2001)
- Футбол. Энциклопедия. Том 2, с. 637
- Jacek Bryl, Wacław Kuchar, (Warszawa, 1982)
- Księga adresowa krόl. stoł miasta Lwowa, 1902
- Księga adresowa krόl. stoł miasta Lwowa, 1913
- Księga adresowa Małopołski 1935–1936
- Księga Pamiątkowa Lwowskiego Klubu Sportowego "Pogoń" Lwόw, 1904-1939
- Polskie Towarzystwo Politechniczne we Lwowie. Księga pamiątkowa 1877-1927 (Lwόw, 1927)
- Przemysław Włodek, Adam Kulewski, Lwόw. Przewodnik, (Pruszkόw: Oficyna Wydawnicza "Rewasz", 2006), s. 291
- Барбара Ґєршевська, "Кінотеатри і кіномаґнати Львова", Ї, 2004, число 36 "Галичина — країна ілюзій"