Vul. Lemyka, 34 – residential building
It is the house of architect Ivan Dolynsky (Jan Doliński), built under his own project in 1898-1902 in the Picturesque style. It is one of the urban dominants of the former Sofiivka (pol. Sofiówka) neighborhood, which adds romantic historicist flavor to it. The house stands out due to its tower, complexly configured tiled roofs, brick chimneys and spiers, is erected on a complicated landscape. Unique wooden and metal elements of constructions and décor (spiers, fences, gargoyle water spouts, etc.) are used in it, as well as pictorial panels under the tower's cornice. It is a monument of architecture (protection number 764).
1853 – the site was occupied by a brickyard.
1889 – the house with conscription number 534 ¼ (as well as the neighboring houses number 532, 533, 535 ¼) was a part of the Krasuczyn folwark.
March 1898 – design drawings of Ivan Dolynsky's house on the plot number 534 ¼ were approved.
December 1898 – the conscription number of the newly built house was changed for 1489¼.
November 1904 – drawings of the house connection to the sewerage system were approved.
24 July 1986 – the house is granted the status of a local architectural monument (protection number 764).
Ivan Dolynsky's house was built in 1898-1902 on an unbuilt territory. It's plot (conscription number 534 ¼) was formed on the territory of the former Krasuczyn folwark. On the 1853 cadastral map, a brickyard is marked on the parcel number 1489; it is mentioned by Yuriy Biriuliov as a brickyard of Hersch Posament (Biriuliov, 2001). In 1871, the houses in this territory (at that time, ul. Snopkowska, 46 and 48, conscription numbers 532 and 533¼ respectively) were owned by Karol Kreter, while the plots with conscription numbers 534 and 535 ¼ were not built up (Skorowidz, 1871).
A number of individual buildings, constructed by Wilhelm Stengel and Johann Michel, stood here before the street itself was formed. In 1885 (or 1871) Dwernickiego street was laid along the concreted Żelazna Woda stream. Later its configuration and name were changed time and again: Badgasse (1943-1944); Y. Dvernytskoho (1944-1946); Instytutska (1946-1975); 30-richchia Peremohy (1975-1991).
In 1991 the street was divided into two parts and in 1993 the third part was allocated, while preserving the old numbering of houses. The lower part became Ilariona Sventsitskoho street (buildings number 1-20), the middle part became Yuriya Mushaka street (buildings number 22, 24 and 42-58), and the upper part became Mykoly Lemyka street (since 1993, buildings number 28, 30, 30a, 32, 32a, 34, 40).
At the turn of the 20th c. the neighborhood of Dwernickiego street was chosen by Ivan Dolynsky (Jan Doliński), a Lviv architect, to build houses there. He designed and constructed a villa on Lemyka street 34 (his own house), on Mushaka street 22 (where his office was located in 1906), and on Mushaka street 24. Nearby, on Snopkowska (now Stusa) street 3-5, twin villas were built by him (Melnyk, 2012, 282). The common feature of all these houses is a free location of volumes, a picturesque silhouette and elements of folk architecture.
On 18 March 1898 the house design drawings were approved. The drawings are signed by Ivan Dolynsky (Jan Doliński), as the owner and architect of the building, as well as by Stanisław Konopacki and Justyna Kamińska, his neighbors (DALO 2/1/4303:20-23). On 12 December 1898, a new conscription number, 1489 ¼ (DALO 2/1/4303:1), was issued for this two-storied building, which was constructed on a plot separated from the parcel number 534 ¼. In the 1900 address book, no residents are mentioned, which may indicate that the construction had not been finished yet. In the 1902 address book, there are already two residents in the building, although, according to archival drawings (DALO 2/1/4303:24), three apartments were designed there. Thus it is possible to assume that in 1902 two-room apartments on the ground floor were rented, while a five-room apartment on the second floor was designed by Ivan Dolynsky for himself. There are no evidences that the architect lived in this house. On 28 November 1904, the design drawings of the house connection to the sewerage system were approved (DALO 2/1/4303:26).
On 11 February 1922 Stanisław Graybner, a resident of the villa, appealed to the Magistrate's sanitary department complaining about the defective sewer in his apartment ignored by the homeowner, Włodzimierz Jasinicki (ДАЛО 2/1/4303:2). On 6 November 1929 Maria Koneczna, a resident, complained to the Magistrate about the poor condition of the floor in the ground floor apartment and demanded that it be repaired (DALO 2/1/4303:8). On 1 February 1930 Maria Koneczna again complained about the defective sewarage system that ran under the floor of her semi-basement apartment (DALO 2/1/4303:12-13). On 30 March 1930 the Magistrate's conclusion was signed about the sewerage system malfunction with a requirement for its repair. On 8 July 1930 the owner was forced to start repair works of the sewerage system and floor (DALO 2/1/4303:6).
On 24 July 1986 the villa of Ivan Dolynsky was given the status of architectural monument of local significance protection number 764. Today, the house remains residential.
The house is erected by an architect for the residence of his family and for the location of the office, as well as for renting apartments to tenants. Today the house is used as a residential multi-apartment building.
The house is located separately, on a complex relief, namely on the north-eastern slope of one of the hills of Sofiivka. The main façade overlooks small Lemyka street, lateral Mushaka street and Sventsytskoho street. It is surrounded by houses built in the late 19th – early 20th centuries in the Picturesque and Secession styles.
The building has two stories and a semi-basement on the front façade side. It features a free layout with an asymmetric arrangement of volumes that is typical of the Picturesque style. It has two staircases, which can be entered also from the street. The central four-flight staircase is located in the square volume of the tower. The lateral two-flight staircase is located on the right and has wheeling steps. Due to the relief difference, the back entrance is accessed via stairs from the street. According to the design drawings, the semi-basement is 3.75 m high, the ground floor is 4 m high, the second floor is 4.35 m high. The total building size in plan view is 24.05 x 16.20 m (ДАЛО 2/1/4303:21-22).
The house's layout. According to the design drawings, the ground floor was occupied by a laundry, the caretaker’s room and two bathroom units in the opposite wings of the house. At the central staircase, there is a common hall for two apartments. Two two-room apartments were designed on the ground floor. Their layout is not comfortable: all rooms are intercommunicating, there are many closets, niches, alcoves there. The apartments have kitchens with windows overlooking the rear façade; there are toilets, but no bathrooms there. On the other hand, from the kitchens of these apartments one can get to the cellars, since stairs are arranged here. In addition, from the apartment on the right the back stairs can be accessed, which can lead one to the level of the street or, going up to the second floor, to the outside gallery and farther to the hill behind the house. The apartment on the left has two entrances, one to the hall and the other leading immediately to a room, which could serve as an office (reception room). The entire second floor is occupied by only one five-room apartment, which, obviously, the architect designed for himself. Near the kitchen here, there is a service room (ДАЛО 2/1/4303:24). One of the rooms has an exit to the veranda, from where one can go down via several steps to a small garden on the hill. The rooms in the house’s left wing have corner balconies on the ground and second floors of the main façade. The central staircase could lead one both to the attic and to the wooden gallery.
The building's façades are designed in the Picturesque style with the use of stylized elements of Gothic, Romanesque, Neo-Baroque, and folk (Carpathian) architecture. The villa features a free arrangement of different volumes with complex roofs; it is dominated by the central tower, topped with an arched roof and crowned with spires and a massive forged fence. The tower is decorated with a metal frieze with trefoils. An additional emphasis is created by a forged gargoyle water spout, designed by Ivan Dolynsky, as well as other artistic elements of the building, at the stage of the design drawings (DALO 2/1/4303:23). Under the principle of "the truth of materials", exposed surfaces of building and facing materials were used on the building's façades: the brickwork of the top part of the walls and high chimney, wooden profiled elements of the galleries, verandas, and porches, heavy metal elements of the top part of the roofs, tiles covering roofs and window sills. Bricks, found around the house, have a mark reading "Gruderówka" on them (they were probably produced nearby, at the brickyard of Majer Gruder, then situated on Snopkowska street 28). According to the principles of uniqueness and manual production, typical of the architecture of the turn of the 20th c., all windows in the house have different sizes and configurations. The windows are both single and mullioned, both arched, with circular, segmental or two-centered arches, and rectangular. In some windows of the staircase, pseudo stained glasses of the Neo-Renaissance stylistics have been preserved, produced by etching in the form of a symmetrical arabesque vase. The main entrance door is wooden, with metal lattices in the windows. The door to the back staircase is replaced with a modern metal one. The semi-basement level is emphasized by banded rustication and opus rusticus inserts below. The volume of the tower is accentuated by a decorative Neo-Baroque asymmetric pediment on the main façade. Metal fences of the balconies and of the bridge leading to the hill are most simple, made of metal rods and covered with a handrail; only the main façade balconies are decorated with jardinières. According to the Secession principles, the building composition is developed upwards, gradually growing from the smooth plastered walls of the lower floors to the brick walls with pictorial panels, drawn in the recessed wall sections and protected by the considerable ejection of the roof. The panels are obviously drawn according to the sketches of the villa’s architect, Ivan Dolynsky, who was also known as a painter. The panels have different sizes: two small, three medium and one largest. There is no painting on one of the panels; it may have been destroyed. The two small panels are decorated with the so-called “metal binding ornament” with fruit garlands in the style of Northern Mannerism, and the larger four panels represent putti with attributes. In particular, one portrays a putto with a quiver bending a bow (Amur); on the second one, a putto is drawing on the globe; and on the other two putti (a girl and a boy) are playing. The panels are drawn in a realistic manner, using the earth palette, in particular a warm (ochrous) color of the subject and a cold (gray) background, which is in harmony with the red brick trimming and the natural color of the wooden elements.
The house is one of the urban dominants of the former Sofiivka (pol. Sofiówka) neighborhood, providing it with a romantic historical flavor. As can be seen in old photos, due to the use of common compositional techniques (towers, brickwork, wooden elements, pictorial inserts), the house formed a harmonious urban ensemble with the buildings on Sventsitskoho street 22, 24 (architect I. Dolynsky) and 28 (architect D. Kryczkowski, 1910-1912).
Today, the condition of the house of Ivan Dolynsky is unsatisfactory. A large part of the roof being covered with galvanized corrugated tin distorts not only the look of the monument, but also the city landscape. Obviously, this was done within the program of the current repair of the housing. In addition, earlier the central tower was covered with tin sheets, most of the windows were replaced with plastic ones, the pseudo stained glasses were lost; only some parts of the façade paintings and of the authentic fence have survived. A number of carved wooden elements of the house, depicted in the archival drawing of the façade (DALO 2/1/4303:23) and seen in an old photo, are also lost. There is no balcony on the second floor, which was designed in the same style as the balcony of the tower. There is no small roof above the entrance, which was on the archival drawing. The house residents indicate an emergency condition of the villa due to a landslip.
The accessible staircase interiors are designed in the Picturesque style. The floor of the vestibule and staircases is paved with mosaic tiles having multi-colored guilloche frieze and filled with diamonds (ochrous and wine red), which were common in Lviv architecture at the turn of the 20th c. The central staircase is wooden and has a metal fence, consisting of twisted rods and an ornament of volutes, flowers, and voluminous spirals. As indicated by some preserved mounting elements, there apparently were identical fences at the staircase windows. Hooks for fixing the carpet have been preserved on the steps. The structure of the stairs is supported by the central pillar, which is square in plan and has small and narrow Neo-Gothic columns on the corners. In line with the column sides, the staircase walls are reinforced with lesenes having identical small columns on the corners. At the entrance, there used to be a statue facing the staircase flight; only its pedestal has survived. According to a ground floor apartment resident, the lower parts of the stair flights were decorated with paintings in the "Carpathian style", with ornaments in blue, green, red colors. These paintings have survived under numerous layers of lime applied during repairs. On the ground floor, there is an authentic double door of the apartment entrance. The small windows of the door are decorated with an etched drawing with arabesques (lambrequins, vases, cartouches), in line with the etched patterns of the staircase windows (vases, royal lilies).
The back (service) staircase is wooden and has chiselled balusters. Its walls are covered with disharmonious multi-colored tiles; the bridge leading to the hill is in an emergency state.
The back façade of the house can be seen from the hill which has terraces and paths. It can be accessed from the veranda of the second floor apartment. Unfortunately, the veranda’s carved elements, marked on the design drawing (ДАЛО 2/1/4303:21), were destroyed during one of the alterations of the apartment (according to a resident). Close to this veranda, a small garden is arranged, limited by a retaining wall. In the wall, there are arched niches, one of which, obviously, contained a sculpture. From this garden, one can get to the hill through an arched portal or go down to the street level via a complex system of stairs. Near the back façade a metal wicket has been preserved, having a wire mesh and ornaments of hearts, scrolls, circles, voluminous spirals consistent with the ornament on the fence of the stairs in the interior.
Due to its separate location close to the hill and its beautiful architecture, the building casts historical and romantic associations over the city residents, resembling a medieval castle, one of Bruegel's paintings or being a kind of symbol of Ukrainian Lviv.
Jadwiga Chrzanowska — the
widow of an epidemiological inspector, a resident of the house in 1913.
Dymitr Czubaty — a local official, a resident of the house in 1935.
Ivan Dolynsky (Jan Doliński, 1852-1916) — a Lviv architect of Ukrainian origin who designed buildings in the Picturesque and early Secession styles, a painter and a teacher. The grandson of painter Luka Dolynsky, the father of architect Witold Dolynsky. The architect and owner of the house on Lemyka street 34. In 1894 he had an office on Św. Mikołaja (Hrushevskoho) street 2 (the former church of St. Nicholas); in 1897, on Długosza (Sv. Kyryla i Metodiya) 14, while living nearby on Długosza street 17. In 1900 he lived and had an office on Zyblikiewicza street 36 (now O. Kobylianskoi street 1, in the building of the former school of forestry); in 1902 on Dwiernickiego street 36 (now Lemyka street; this house does not exist today). In 1904 and 1914 he had an office on Dwiernickiego street 20; in 1906, on Dwiernickiego street 22 (now Mushaka street 22). In 1910 and 1913 he lived and had an office on Obozowa (Voloshchaka) street 6; in 1916, he lived on Gródecka (Horodotska) street 16.
Włodzimierz Drwęcki — a local official, a resident of the house in 1902.
Stanisław Graybner — a resident of the house in 1922.
Majer Gruder —the owner (1900) of the brickyard on Snopkowska street 28, where the bricks used in the construction of Dolynsky’s building were probably produced.
Eugenia Jaroszyńska — a widow, a resident of the house in 1910.
Włodzimierz Jasienicki / Jasinicki — a doctor, the owner of the house on Lemyka street 34, a resident of the house on Chekhova street 28 (1922) and its owner (1930).
Maria Kamińska — a widow, a resident of the house in 1910.
Justyna Kamińska — the owner of the neighboring parcels (1490/1, 1489/2), marked on the location drawing of the design drawings of Dolynsky's building.
Jan Kamiński — a tiler, a resident of the house in 1902.
Antoni Kolarz (1883-1967) — an employee in a private organization, a Polish cooperative activist, the owner of the house in 1935.
Maria Koneczna — a resident of the house (in the semi-basement) in 1929.
Stanisław Konopacki — the owner of the neighboring parcels (1490/2, 1489/8, 1489/4), marked on the location drawing of the design drawings of the house of Dolynsky.
Mikołaj Krasucki — the owner of the Krasuczyn folwark in 1889, which included plots with conscription numbers 532, 533, 534, 535¼.
Karol Kreter — the owner of the houses on Snopkowska street 46, 48 (respectively, the conscription numbers 532, 533) in 1871.
Jan Manz — an employee in a private organization, a resident of the house in 1913.
Oksana Mukha — a contemporary Ukrainian singer, a present-day resident of the house.
Hersch Posament — the owner of the brickyard on the parcel number 1489 (where the building of Dolynsky was later constructed).
Ludwik Rychlicki — a masseur, a resident of the house in 1913.
Franciszek Sedlaczek — a teacher, a resident of the house in 1935.
Michalina Szeliga — a resident of the house in 1933.
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