Vul. Khmelnytskoho, 124 – Jam Factory Art Center
The neogothic building is a monument of local significance (No.1577-M), previously a part of the complex of the factories "Józef Kronik"/ "Kronik i Syn" / Jam Factory. Harald Binder Cultural Enterprises, its current owner from 2015 is reconstructing the complex into a contemporary art center. Herbert Pasterk is the director of the design and construction.
Village Znesinnia (pol. Zniesienie) which was included into the Lviv boundaries in 1930, had been located directly next to the city customs post, the rogatka Żółkiewska, at the similarly-named street (since 1944, Khmelnytskoho Street). The road had been constructed in the 1770s and known as the Emperor's tract. It was an important element of infrastructure encouraging industrial development in the so-called Pidzamche area of Lviv and in Znesinnia. During the nineteenth century a number of enterprises were founded here which specialized in agricultural products' processing. The construction of the Lviv–Brody railroad including the Pidzamche train station which opened in 1869 gave another upsurge to the industrial specialization of these areas.
The Kroniks' Family Business
In 1850, Moses Kronik addressed Franciszka Laszkowska, the owner of the Znesinnia village, for a permission to develop a distillery on his private territory (CDIAL 166/1/1178). At that time, he had already been running a tavern there and so he was making a logical step in expanding his business. The permission entitled Kronik to produce and sell all kinds of alcohol except for beer and arak, obliging him to pay the village owner 150 florins per year.
In 1850, the Znesinnia land cadaster was made, it records the Kronik's land plot with the conscriptional number 105. Moses's children were involved into the alcohol business as well. In 1872, as it is stated on the label of a kosher liquor "Szabasowa", his grandson founded his own company "Józef Kronik" It produced mainly rum and rosolio. In 1877, Leib, Moses's son, established an enterprise producing brandy, alcohol and wines which later functioned under the name "Kronik i Mahler". For some time, both companies existed simultaneously functioning on the same site. The Kroniks lived right next to the production, and the tavern continued working.
The Kroniks' companies were situated in close vicinity to a number of other enterprises specializing in alcohol production in Znesinnia, the Baczewski alcohol factory, well-known in the entire Austrian-Hungarian empire, being the most famous among them. The business provided social promotion to its owners, e.g. Leib Kronik was chosen as a member of the jury to the Regional criminal court in Lviv in 1877. In 1913, Josef was chosen to it. Before 1901, Josef's business had extended its production capacities, he owned a distillery in Smarzów of Brodzki powiat, (now Smorzhiv village in Radekhivskyi rayon). In 1909, Josef was granted a title of an imperial and royal warrant of appointment (k.k. Hoflieferant), which, undoubtedly, was an indication of his success.
Address books from the late 1890s keep records of Josef Kronik's relocation from the distant Znesinnia to the Lviv city center. He lived near the Galician Diet for a few years, e.g. in an apartment on ul. Kraszewskiego, 1 (now Krushelnytskoi), later — on Akademicka, 26 (prosp. Shevchenka) and ul. Pańska, 17 (now vul. Franka). At the latter, he was registered together with his son Moritz (Pol. Maurycy), who had recently defended his PhD in chemistry at the Franz University (Lviv) in 1909 (DALO 26/15/726:456). His research work was related to the synthesis of vinegar which apparently had to be useful for the family business, which included vinegar production at the time. Moritz became a partner in 1912 and thus the company was renamed into "Kronik and Son" (Kronik i syn).
The Kroniks participated actively in the life of the Znesinnia Jewish community. In 1864, Moses Kronik gave half of his land plot as well as half of his income to the Jewish hospital (CDIAL 166/1/1180:188). In 1866, he donated to the Central Jewish Patriotic Committee (Gazeta Lwowska, 1866, Nr. 17, s. 1). In 1878, the initiative group of Jewish residents in Znesinnia including Leib Kronik bought the neighboring land plot for the synagogue construction, the Kroniks being among its donors. Josef Kronik donated to support schoolchildren from the poor families of Znesinnia (Kurjer Lwowski, 1890, Nr. 355, s. 3) and also was a member of the "Ose Tov" charity association (Hebr. "do good") taking care of the Jewish cemetery in the village (CDIAL 701/2/1118:158). Even though the factory got damaged due to an arson attack by the Russian troops retreating from Lviv in 1915, Josef Kronik donated money to the Viennese Association of Saving Jewish Children of Galicia and Bukovina (Neue Freie Presse, 1917, Nr. 18988, s. 7). Such charitable and societal activities helped to establish the Jewish community in Znesinnia which strove to be independent from the Lviv city community and build their own infrastructure which would afford to pay less contributions and taxes (Гельстон, 2004).
Dr. Moritz Kronik did not limit himself to continuing his father's business. In the late 1918, he founded a cosmetic and pharmaceutical company "Kronik and Edels" (Dr. Kronik & Mr. Edels) in Vienna, in cooperation with the pharmacist Salomon Edels from Lviv (Amtsblatt für Wiener Zeitung 1919, Nr. 11, s. 32). In the following years, he lived mostly in Vienna, but returned to Lviv in 1926 because of his father's death. The obituary published in the local Tagblatt characterized the deceased as a "Jew of an old Lemberg style". Moritz thus gained full ownership of the company in Lviv. After that, his family was travelling between Lviv and Vienna, while the "Kronik and Son" company management was shared between him and his partner Szulim Wallach. Wallach was known for being on the council of the Jewish religious community in Lviv. He owned real estate in the very city center, on ul. Akademicka, 12 (Księga adresowa, 1935). When in Lviv, Moritz lived on the Rynok Square, in the Zipper House. During the period of 1926-1939, the enterprise produced spirits and traded wines, first imported from Hungary, and later from Palestine (Chwila, 1926, Nr. 2676, s. 3). It was the business of cosher spirits trade that continued developing, including Slivovitz (plum brandy) for the holiday of Pesach (Chwila, 1938, Nr. 6849, s. 10).
Dr. Kronik was a member of a charitable (and, probably, masonic) organization "The Free Sons of Israel" (American Jewish Yearbook, 1917, Vol. 19, s. 341), and in the interwar period, donated for the colonists to Palestine, which indicates his political views. He donated to the Jewish Academic House (dormitory of the Jan Kazimierz University) on the ul. Sw. Terezy, 28 in Lviv, now vul. Anhelovycha (Sprawozdanie roczne 1927, s. 35).
The Second World War put a tragic end to the Kronik dynasty. The enterprise was nationalized by the Soviet administration in 1939. In the documents dating back to 1941, it is mentioned as the Lviv Alcohol Factory No. 5 having 74 employees (DALO R-130/1/4). Except for the fact that it was listed in the Nazi catalogues among the "former Jewish properties" (DALO R-37/4/539:97), sources regarding the factory during the Nazi occupation of 1941-1944 have not been found yet. It is a known fact that the Lviv Jews were resettled to the ghetto in November-December 1941 (while the factory stayed outside its borders), most of them were killed there, at the killing site in the neighboring Lysynychi village or they were deported to the Belzec death camp. Some members of the Kronik family died in Warsaw, Theresienstadt, and Auschwitz. In 1942-1944, the Nazis destroyed the synagogue and Jewish cemetery in Znesinnia, making them vanish without a trace.
After the war, when Lviv was part of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, the enterprise buildings were used by the trust "Ukrholovvyno" (All-Ukrainian Vine Trust); imported wines from Moldova and Algeria were bottled here. Lviv telephone directory from 1949 indicates that this enterprise at vul. Khmelnytskoho, 124 was connected with the blending room of "Ukrholovvyno", located in the Pohulianka park in Lviv.
In the 1970s, the buildings were used as a vegetable processing unit of the Lviv regional office of the Department of Procurement, wholesale and retail trade in vegetables, potatoes and fruit of the USSR Ministry of Trade ("Plodoovochetorh"). Vegetable preserves, jams, honeys, and mushrooms were prepared here and sold nearby in a small shop. In comparison to the big plants and factories, which developed as part of the Soviet industrialization of Lviv and were especially numerous on Pidzamche, it appears tiny, employing only about 25 permanent workers, mostly female. Most of them commuted from nearby villages, and so the factory kept the image of a place of connection between the city and its rural agricultural surroundings. The factory's products were sold nevertheless in various places all over the USSR, in western and central Ukraine, Moscow, Far East, Belarus etc. It had larger factories among its customers, such as the famous Confectionary "Svitoch" (Havryliv, 2018; Trots, 2018). In the 1980s, the enterprise was technically updated with vacuum units for the jam and tomato paste production (Havryliv, 2018).
After 1991, a period of economy restructuring started. In 1998 the factory was reorganized into "Vitacons" LLC which continued to produce jams and vegetable preserves. In 2008, the production stopped on site, and the building was purchased by Oleksiy Kurylyshyn, a businessman and real estate developer in Lviv. He was interested in an adaptive reuse of the building as a hotel or similar commercial function, but the economic crisis of 2008 undermined those intentions. The owner gave permission to organize various cultural events here. The Week of Contemporary Art in Lviv, organized for several years in a row starting in 2008, the "Lviv Fashion Week", some theatrical performances, "Urban Exploration Fest" (see Прокопенко 2015; Jam Factory 2019) were among the most conspicuous events going on here.
Jam Factory Art Center
In 2015, historian and cultural promoter from Vienna Harald Binder bought the factory and initiated its revitalization through his organization "Harald Binder Cultural Enterprises" (HBCE). An international architectural competition followed in 2015, in which Stefan Rindler Architectural Bureau from Vienna was selected as winner. Thus the long process of consolidation of the land plots, getting permissions, and adaptation of the Austrian project to the Ukrainian laws and regulations in partnership with the local "AVR Development" bureau, started. In the meantime, the team of the project, led by Bozhena Pelenska (Zakaliuzhna), is working on institution-building, with grant program, educational lecture series, exhibitions, and art fellowship residences, functioning in the temporary locations nearby (Binder, 2019; Zakaliuzhna, 2019; Kovalchuk, 2019; Chaplinskyi, 2019).
In October 2019, the implementation of the revitalization project started, directed by Herbert Pasterk. It includes restoration and adaptation of the two buildings listed as monuments of local significance, as well as construction of new additional premises, to produce and host theatre plays and performances, exhibitions, workshops and other events, also for offices, restaurant, and open public space. The complete renovation and building of the complex is planned for 2022.
The former “Józef Kronik” / “Kronik i Syn” factory is located in the northeastern suburbs of Lviv, next to the place where the historic boundary between Lviv and Znesinnia village used to be, marked by the customs post (rogatka żółkiewska). The factory is a complex of buildings. There are three located along the street, two of which exhibit neogothic design and have the status of architectural monuments of local significance. Those two, including a tower are quite outstanding in the whole surroundings of historic Znesinnia and Pidzamche areas.
The exact origin of this design remains unknown. Architect and restorer Roman Mohytych argues that this architecture is in line with the architectural practices common in the 1870s in Galicia and thus its construction can be dated to this period (Могитич, 2016). However, there is no doubt that the neogothic features came as a result of a reconstruction, rather than a new construction. The two-storey building along Khmelnytskoho street has been recorded by the first cadaster plan of Znesinnia in 1850, and the one along Mekhanichna street (the one comprising the tower) is present in the workbook of cadaster amendments of 1872. The third building, adjacent from the northeast, is the latest of the three.
Researcher Olha Zarechnyuk suggested that the neogothic style did not appear here before 1907/1908. She relies on the analysis of photographs of Znesinnia and Pidzamche, particularly, the one taken by Franciszek Rychnowski in 1894 near the Baczewski factory (Котлобулатова, 2008, 74), and another one from the mound of Union of Lublin, dating back to no later than 1907 and neither of the images show any trace of tower or neogothic design (Zarechnyuk, 2018). In 1908, there was a fire on the territory of the factory (Kurjer Lwowski, 1908, Nr. 10, s. 3), therefore, the additional structure and style may have appeared during the subsequent reconstruction.
A neogothic arcature with consoles and segmental arches as well as decorative battlements crown the facades from the side of the street, uniting thus two buildings into a whole. There are also corner spires resembling observation turrets composed within the battlements. Two of them are placed on the top of the tower, one on the two-story house. They are covered by zinc sheet metal while the merlons of the battlements are covered by red ceramic tiles. A gate is arranged between two buildings. All these elements are there to evoke the image of medieval fortifications.
The tower has an asymmetrical silhouette formed with elements of different height. The first floor windows and doors are semicircular with rusticated archivolts. On the second floor there are pointed arch biforia with semi-columns. There is a small terrace on the level of the third floor, it is fenced with a battlement. On the same level, from the side of the street, there is a balcony with a wrought iron fence (Могитич, 2016). The windows of the third and fourth floor are placed within pointed arched niches. There are semicircular windows on the third floor and pointed on the fourth, arranged into triforia with round lunettes above them. The tower is topped with the same arcature and battlements, supplied with stylized arrowslits below.
The gate has a semicircular opening, with a gable above it. A little niche is provided on the gable intended for a mural. The original doors are long gone, and the opening shows that it has been widened since, as part of the trimmings are damaged. Now it is only to be concluded that the original doors must have been wrought metal, its shapes having something in common with the balcony fence on the tower.
The whole architectural and spatial composition of the complex is oriented towards viewing it from the northeastern side, from the entrance point to Lviv. The building and the tower have blind walls from the side of the city, from the southwest. It can be explained by the "parcelling rules": the wall located at the boundary between two real estates must have no apertures so it can be blocked with a neighboring building at any time. Roman Mohytych suggests that Josef Kronik may have planned to expand his business in the future and, basically, to add an appropriate building from that southern side later. However, it was the Baczewski company that rose to the top positions and extended its territory, and even moved the street (now Mekhanichna Street) forward almost to the boundary line of the Kronik's land plot.
After the Second World War, several buildings were constructed in the depth of the land plot, they do not have a monument status. The original buildings continued to be used without implementing any spatial changes. Some of their characteristic elements were lost: the entry gate, roof tiles, there are gutters constructed on the front etc. In 1990, the building was put on the list of architectural monuments of local significance, receiving the number 1577-M.
The architectural project of Stefan Rindler and "AVR Development" comprises reconstruction and restoration works on the buildings with monument status as well as construction of new buildings in the depth of the land plot. Since the main building is in dilapidated state, the project also includes shoring of foundations and a building frame for the creation of a new stability core (Ковальчук 2019). The front of the building is expected to undergo restoration with all the available elements to be preserved and all the lost ones to be reconstructed, such as ceramic roof tiles (Ковальчук 2019). The authentic wooden stairway in the tower will also be restored.
Exhibition space is planned inside the main building. An event hall is to be arranged in the new buildings in the depth of the land plot. It will be a place for lectures, theater, restaurant; an inner courtyard with greenery and an open-air stage are planned next to it.
Harald Binder — a historian and a cultural entrepreneur from Vienna
Salomon Edels — Master of Pharmacy, Moritz Kronik's business partner in Vienna
Moses Kronik (approx. 1800–1910) — a distillery founder
Josef Kronik (Józef Kronik, 1846–1926) — a grandson of Moses Kronik, the company founder
Leib Kronik (b. 1828) — a son of Moses Kronik
Moritz Kronik (Maurycy Kronik, 1880–?) — a son of Josef Kronik, PhD in chemistry from the Franz University (Lviv)
Oleksiy Kurylyshyn — a businessman and real estate developer from Lviv
Franciszka Laszkowska — the owner of the village Znesinnia in the middle of the 19th century
Herbert Pasterk — director of the design and construction of the Jam Factory Art Center
Bozhena Pelenska (Zakaliuzhna) — director of the Jam Factory Art Center since 2016
Stefan Rindler — head of the architectural bureau in Vienna, which designed the Jam Factory Art Center whose project is being implemented by the AVR Development bureau from Lviv
Szulim Wallach — Moritz Kronik's business partner in Lviv, merchant and manufacturer, a councillor of the Jewish religious community of the city
1. Archive of the Jam Factory Contemporary Art Center, collected by Harald Binder and Yevheniy Poliakov;
2. State Archive of Lviv Oblast (DALO) Р-130/1/4;
3. DALO Р-37/4/539:97;
4. DALO 26/15/726:456;
5. Central State Historical Archive of Ukraine in Lviv (CDIAL) 166/1/1178:83-85;
6. CDIAL 166/1/1180:188ff;
7. CDIAL 701/2/1118:158;
8. American Jewish Yearbook, 1917, Vol. 19, p. 341;
9. “Firmenprotokollierungen”, Amtsblatt für Wiener Zeitung, 1919, Nr. 11, s. 32;
10. Chwila, 1926, №2676, s. 3;
11. Chwila, 1938, №6849, s. 10;
12. Galicyjska księga adresowa, 1896, s. 57, 368;
13. “Część urzędowa. Wykaz ofiar…”, Gazeta Lwowska, 1866, №177, s. 1;
14. “Kronika. Losowanie sędziów przysięgłych”, Gazeta Narodowa, 1877, №176, s. 3;
15. Księga adresowa Małopolski (Lwów, Stanisławów, Tarnopol), 1936;
16. “Kronika. Dla biednych dzieci”, Kurjer Lwowski, 1890, №355, s. 3;
17. “Kronika. Cztery pożary”, Kurjer Lwowski, 1908, №10, s. 3;
18. “Kronika. Sędziowie przysięgli”, Kurjer Lwowski, 1913, №474, s. 4;
19. Jerzy Michalewicz, Słownik historyczny zakładów przemysłu gorzelniczego Galicji doby autonomicznej, Tom 4, (Kraków: Uniwersytet Jagielloński, 1993), s. 31;
20. “Aktion zur Rettung der verlassenen Kinder Galiziens”, Neue Freie Presse, 1917, №18988, s. 7;
21. M. Sonnenschein, Lwowski skorowidz adresowy, Rocznik 2, (Lwów, 1926), s. 102;
22. Spis abonentów sieci telefonicznych... Warszawa, 1939, s. 677;
23. Sprawozdanie roczne Wydziału Towarzystwa Rygorozantów (Żydowski dom akademicki) we Lwowie za rok akademicki 1926/1927, (Lwów: Nakładem Towarzystwa Rygorozantów, 1927), s. 35;
24. Иосиф Гельстон, “Евреи на Знесенье. Фрагменты из истории”, Матеріали ХІI міжнародної наукової конференції “Єврейська історія та культура в країнах Центральної та Східної Європи — Єврейське краєзнавство та колекціонування”
25. Ігор Мельник, Довкола Високого Замку. Шляхами і вулицями Жовківського передмістя та північних околиць міста Львова, (Львів: Апріорі, 2010), 288;
25. Роман Могитич, Фабрика горілки та підсолоджених трунків "Йозеф Кронік і син". Історична довідка (Львів, 2016) (unpublished);
26. Справочник Львовской АТС, (Львов, 1949);
27. Anna Kozłowska-Ryś, Lwów na słodko i półwytrawnie, (Poznań: Liberum, 2018);
28. Olha Zarechnyuk, "Kronik i syn" Factory. Evidence from Historic City Maps and Photography, (Lviv, 2018) (unpublished)
29. Interview with Harald Binder, founder of the Jam Factory Art Center, recorded by Iryna Sklokina in March 2019
30. Interview with Yaroslav Havryliv, director of “Vitakons” LLC, recorded by Iryna Sklokina in December 2018
31. Interview with Bozhena Zakaliuzhna (Pelenska), director of the Jam Factory Art Center, recorded by Iryna Sklokina in November 2018 – June 2019
32. Interview with Kateryna Kovalchuk, architect from AVR Development, recorded by Iryna Sklokina in January 2019
33. Interview with Halyna Trots, bookkeeper of “Vitakons” LLC, recorded in December 2018
34. Interview with Yulian Chaplynskyi, the head of the Department for City Planning and Architecture in Lviv in 2015-2019, recorded by Iryna Sklokina in February 2019
35. Jam Factory Art Center у фокусі проекту Open Heritage (2019), Jam Factory Art Center Youtube channel, October 10
By Harald Binder and Iryna Sklokina
Prepared for publication by Olha Zarechnyuk
We are grateful to Yevheniy Poliakov for collecting the archival materials
Translation by Natalia Usach