Yaniv cemetery territory – former Beth Tahora (Jewish chapel)
The preburial chapel "Beth Tahora" at the new Jewish cemetery was an original and modern building. It was erected by well-known Lviv architects Roman Feliński, Michał Ulam, and Jerzy Grodyński. In 1943 the Nazis destroyed the cemetery and blew up the chapel.
In 1855, after the old Jewish cemetery at the Krakivske (Krakowska) suburb was closed by the Austrian authorities, new Jewish cemetery was founded near the Yanivska (Yanowska) road (now Shevchenka street) by the Kortumowa hill.
In 1856 a cemetery ritual chapel was built there at the expense of Yefroim Wiksel, a merchant. In 1875 a road called Pylykhovska (ul. Pilichowska, now Yeroshenka street) and leading to the cemetery was laid, and in 1890 a brick fence in the Neo-Romanesque style was constructed, which stretched along the street and has survived till today.
A lot of prominent members of Lviv's Jewish community were buried at the new cemetery, including Emmanuil Blummenfeld, one of the founders of the reformed synagogue, Maurycy Łazarus, the founder of the Jewish hospital, rabbis Bernard Lewenstein and Ezekiel Caro, Emil Byk, a religious community head and a champion of assimilation, Abraham Korkes, Herschon Zipper, and Leon Reich, who were the leaders of the Zionist movement in Lviv. There were also memorials to the victims of the November 1918 pogrom and to the fallen Jewish soldiers there.
In 1912-1913 a new cemetery chapel designed by well-known Lviv architects Roman Feliński, Michał Ulam, and Jerzy Grodyński was built near the main entrance to the Jewish cemetery from the Pylykhovska road (now Yeroshenka street). The walls of the chapel were decorated with paintings by Feliks Michał Wygrzywalski, a famous artist.
In 1943 the Nazis blew up the Beth Tahora and destroyed the two Jewish cemeteries. The stone tombstones, matsevas, were used to pave roads. In 1947, in place of the old cemetery, a market called Krakivsky was organized by the Soviet authorities. In 1962 the new cemetery was attached to the Yanivsky cemetery, and it still functions under the care of the Jewish community.
The chapel was a small but monumental building with a centric layout. Its Art Nouveau architecture was up-to-date at the time of its construction. The building was notable for a large copper dome supported by an octagonal drum with narrow rectangular windows, three on each side flanked with columns. The drum rose up from a rectangular block via trumpet arches. The entrances were arranged on four sides through porticoes with arched openings in the gable walls. The building's interior walls were covered with Secession ornamental paintings by Wygrzywalski.
Emmanuil Blumenfeld — one of the founders of the reformed synagogue (the tempel) in Lviv
Maurycу Łazarus — the founder of the Jewish hospital in Lviv
Bernard Löwenstein — rabbi
Ezekil Caro — rabbi, head of the Jewish community
Emil Byk — activist who strove for the Jewish assimilation
Abraham Korkes — one of the leaders of Lviv Zionists
Herschon Zipper — one of the leaders of Lviv Zionists
Leon Reich — one of the leaders of Lviv Zionists
Roman Feliński — architect
Michał Ulam — architect
Jerzy Grodyński — architect
Feliks Michał Wygrzywalski — artist
1. Бирюлев Ю., Еврейское наследие Львова (Львов: Центр Европы, 2002).
2. Бірюльов Ю., Мистецтво львівської сецесії. (Львів: Центр Європи, 2005).
3. Бойко О., Синагоги Львова. (Львів: Класика, 2008).
By Oksana Boyko